Muhammad had a special dispensation
for “Peoples of the Book – they could
retain their faith and autonomy
, by paying a “tax.”
Modern views are more open and
claim jihad is only for self-defense.
Sufis generally reject use of force.
Outcry against 9-11 from Muslims
got lost in Western news
Jenkins, Mar 2003
Concepts of Jihad
Differing Opinions on Jihad
Interpretation and Application